Chemically, Carbon Black is a colloidal form of elemental carbon consis0ng of 95% to 99% carbon (C). Made in specially designed reactors, opera0ng at internal temperatures in the range of 1400°C to 2000°C, different grades of Carbon Black can be produced with varying aggregates size and structure., there are five main types; acetylene black, channel black, lamp black, furnace black and thermal black. The focus of this paper will be on thermal black N990/N991. The effects of using thermal black N990/N991 in a nitrile rubber compound for both compound properties and total quality cost will be demonstrated.
Thermal carbon black N990 is manufactured by the thermal decomposition of natural gas. This process produces a very unique carbon black characterized by a large particle size while having low structure. This paper will provide a general description of the thermal carbon black and the effects of this carbon’s unique properties on nitrile elastomers compounds. Advantages of using, medium thermal carbon black, including high loadability, low compression set, low compound viscosity and the potential for compound cost savings, will be discussed.
The worldwide most common production process uses a closed reactor to atomize heavy aroma0c oils under pressure and temperature controlled condi0ons. This feedstock is inducted into a hot gas stream and a preheated air stream where it vaporizes and then pyrolyzes in the vapor phase to form microscopic carbon parcles.
Although furnace carbon black comprises most of the world’s carbon black consumption, thermal carbon black plays a very significant role especially in compounds utilizing high performance polymers. Carbon black can be generally defined as very fine particulate aggregates of carbon with an amorphous quasi-graphitic molecular structure. Thermal carbon black is produced using a clean natural gas feedstock in a thermal decomposition reaction to produce a high purity carbon black with large particle size and low structure.
The crude oil is vaporized in the channel black process and is fed to the burners together with the carrier gas. A specific influence on the structure of the Carbon Blacks produced in this way is not possible. Nowadays the channel black process is primarily used to manufacture Carbon Black pigments with very fine particles.
Discontinuous or cyclic process, with natural gas methane as the most commonly used feedstock. The natural gas is injected into the inert atmosphere of the furnace where it decomposes into Carbon Black and hydrogen. It has the largest particle size and among the lowest degrees of particle aggrega0on or structure.